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BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER A CHALLENGE FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO BRAIN. Supreet Singh, Abdul Faruk, Gurpreet Singh, Afzal Hussain, Rabia Sharma

BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER A CHALLENGE FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO BRAIN

Supreet Singh, Abdul Faruk, Gurpreet Singh, Afzal Hussain, Rabia Sharma

International Journal of Natural Product Science 2012: Spl Issue 1:76.

Abstract (RBIP-76)

Drug delivery to the brain has challenged medical professionals for several decades, as 98% of small molecules and 100% of large molecules unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Biocompatible, biodegradable polymers have been extensively researched for the oral delivery of therapeutic agents. Drugs can reach the brain by crossing one of two physiological barriers resistant to free diffusion of most molecules from blood to CNS: the endothelial blood-brain barrier or the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. These tissues constitute both transport and enzymatic barriers. Commonly, the strategies for designing an effective prodrug relies on increasing parent drug lipophilicity, but prodrug bioconversion in the brain will result in a failure. Nanoparticulate administration of drugs can be a promising alternative and non-invasive route to improve brain targeting of the parent drugs due to fast absorption and rapid onset of drug action. The carrier-mediated absorption of drugs and prodrugs across epithelial and endothelial barriers is emerging as another novel trend in biotherapeutics. This review considers the demand of therapeutic system and proper functioning of barrier system to surpass hurdles in drug delivery to brain. Therefore, issue related to achieve remarkable progress in this area have been reviewed and discussed so as to exploit brain’s physiological conditions to harness its objective of targeting specific region. It is concluded that site targeting is still a challenge as brain physiology changes with the diseased condition.
Key words: Blood Brain Barrier, Nanoparticles, Prodrug, Drug Targeting
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